A study conducted by researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine reports that a cohort of women exposed to a safe, alternative method of maternity care had a 5.3% cesarean delivery rate compared to an 11.8% of women who received more traditional care. The new approach is called the Active Management of Risk in Pregnancy at Term (AMOR-IPAT). AMOR-IPAT evaluates the risk profile for each pregnancy, and uses each risk profile to estimate an optimal time of delivery. Preventive labor induction is used if a woman does not develop spontaneous labor by the upper limit of her optimal time of delivery. Within the term period, the greater the number and severity of risk factors, the earlier preventive labor induction is offered. The study was conducted at a rural New England hospital and involved 1,869 women. The results of this study are similar to a 400-patient study from an urban setting, published in 2009, which reported a 4% cesarean delivery rate in women exposed to AMOR-IPAT.